Endocrine department has Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning machine to measure bone mineral density (BMD). Two X-ray beams with different energy levels are passed through the patient. The BMD is estimated after subtracting absorption in the soft tissue (fat and muscle). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used to diagnose osteoporosis. BMD is expressed as T scores and Z scores. The T-score is the number of standard deviations by which a person's BMD differs from that of healthy young adults. The Z-score is the number of standard deviations by which a person's BMD differs from that of same age and sex. A T-score of -2.5 or less is indicative of osteoporosis. DXA scan is also used to measure total body composition.
The department also runs following research projects in osteoporosis.
Procedures done in bone densitometry:
Integrated Diabetes Foot Clinic
- Whole body scan
- Trabecular bone scan
- Body composition scan
- Vertebral fracture assessment scan
- Hip structural assessment scan
Dexa Scan Statistics from 2014-2020
International Multi-centre Trials
- A Phase III Randomized, Placebo –Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Odanacatib (MK-0822) to Reduce the Risk of Fracture in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women Treated With Vitamin D and Calcium – (5 year project) starting in 2009.
- PEARL - PEARL (Postmenopausal Evaluation and Risk Reduction with Lasofoxifene) – 5 year project completed in January 2008.
- QUINTILES – Generations study - “Effects of Arzoxifene on Vertebral Fracture Incidence and on Invasive Breast Cancer Incidence in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis or with Low Bone Density” – 5 year project.
- PEARL - PEARL (Postmenopausal Evaluation and Risk Reduction with Lasofoxifene) – 5 year project completed in January 2010.
- Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D status in patients who are infected with HIV infection.
- Bone Mineral Density & Vitamin D status in patients who are on anti-convulsant therapy.
- Bone Mineral Density, Calcium nutrition and Vitamin D status in patients who are admitted with acute hip fracture./li>
- Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Vitamin D status in adult men in semi-urban Vellore.
Other cohorts in future to be studied
- Vitamin D status and Bone Mineral Density in patient who are affected with hemophilia.
- Bone Mineral Density and Vitamin D status in patients who are affected with Thalesemia.
- Vitamin D status and renal tubular disorders in subjects who are having with Wilson’s disease.
- Fracture data collection over a period of 5 years in postmenopausal women who are from a semi-urban area in Vellore.
- Vitamin D supplementation and fracture risk reduction and BMD assessment in postmenopausal women.
- Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy and assessment of maternal and fetal vitamin D status.